April 5, 2014

Discussion Questions Sample

United States health care system, being a huge system, has also established inefficiency which proves to be a barrier to the innovation of this $2.7 trillion industry. This inefficiency, despite all the automation and technological innovations, results the huge financial loss.The above indicators have shown that all the five countries, in most of the indicators, are almost similar in performance. However, each country has strengths in some area and weaknesses in other.   As far as the United States is concerned, although it spends a huge amount on its healthcare system but it is noticed that United States had performed very poorly on measures of” national health expenditures, administrative costs, the use of information technology, and the use of multidisciplinary teams. The discussion question is what are the most appropriate healthcare payment methods for United States?
First Source
The first website is http://www.kff.org/pullingittogether/021610_altman.cfm. This is an article published on Kaiser Family Foundation website. This article revealed that public insurance programs like Medicare and Medicaid failed to increase their per capita spending with the same pace as private insurance companies do. There are various programs initiated by the government of United States to provide better health care to the U.S. nationals.
Programs like Medicaid and Medicare are two examples. The government pays huge amounts to fund these programs. These are federal state insurance programs which are jointly funded for low-income and indigent residents. They benefit minors, the elderly, disabled individuals, blind and other individuals who get federally assisted income maintenance payments.
Medicaid is the health program of United States for the families who have little resources and incomes. This program is mutually funded by the federal and state governments, and States managed them. The other one, which is the Medicare, provides health insurance coverage to older people. It is a social insurance program administered by the government of United States. But people who are under 65 years of age but are permanently physically disabled, or have a congenital physical disability, or others, who meet the special criteria can avail the benefits of this program.
The information provided in the paper is relevant to the topic of my paper and are quite reliable also because the source Kaiser Family Foundation is a reliable source.
Second Source
The second website is http://www.acponline.org/hpp/performance_measure.pdf. This is taken from American College of Physicians. It discusses the importance of performance measures, which if taken properly, have potential to assess physician performance and improve the quality of patient care. However, if the same measures are not taken properly it can hinder quality and harm patient care, undermine the physician–patient relationship, and cause physician frustration and career dissatisfaction.
Like others in business, physicians must compete for paying patients. Doctors are no longer in short supply, except in urban slums and remote rural areas, and find themselves in a buyer’s market. Also they often enter practice with medical school debts of hundreds of thousands of dollars. This type of pressure conflicts with the physician’s professional ethics to recommend medical service to patients without resorting to maximum fees. Arrangements with manufacturers of medical products and drugs may reward physicians for prescribing or recommending products that are more expensive. Doctors might direct patient to health care facilities, such as laboratories, convalescent homes, in which they are financial interest. The source and information provided is authentic and relevant.

Altman, D., L. Levitt, and G. Claxton (2010). Pulling it Together: An Actuarial Rorschach Test.
Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieve on 13th March 2013 from:
American College of Physicians (2004). The use of performance measurements to improve
physician quality of care. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians. Retrieve on 13th March 2013 from

March 2, 2014

Essay on Lessons From Thailand

Lessons from Thailand
The article analyzes the changing political current in Thailand with regards to latest election results and the changing trends influencing South-East Asia. The author draws on the transition from authoritarian rule to democratic one implying that this process provides us lessons and food for thought. He comes up with ten important lessons that can be extracted from the example of Thailand.
Firstly, in the wake of elections, the fears of atrocities have intensified resulting in the mutilation and torture. On the positive note, this compels the voters to discern between the two systems. Secondly, the election proved that party image is all-powerful and can at times subdue and overshadow the individual leaders.
The elections also revealed that the Abhisit’s party could not have appealed to the masses on the basis of one geographic or ethnic base. In case a party prefers to put faith in one community or region, it finally results in more chaos and uncertainty in the country. The need for a national base cannot be stressed less.
In the process of election, the presence of intact and strong machinery cannot be overlooked as it serves to mobilize and motivate the voters. Ordinary voters should not be overlooked for the sake of support from elite classes. Moreover, the author opines that it is necessary to adopt decentralized and people-centric policies. Voters should be treated gently and with respect because they decide the fate of a political party.
The more the voters are ingratiated and respected, the wider the prospects for a political party. Women play a pivotal role in society and in every walk of life thus they should not be ignored and ruled out from the process.
The author believes that this is not plausible to assume that the current electoral process is free of all errors and flaws. It is necessary to pay heed to downsides as well. Lastly, elections are not everything; they should be treated as an important step in the right direction.

Welsh, Bridget(2011) “Lessons from Thailand: Rejection of Authoritarian Rule”

Other Related Termscollege essays for saleessay papers, buy essaysbuy essaybuy essay online,essay editing servicebuy term paper, custom term papersnursing essay writing servicecustom essay writing service,  thesis writing service write my paper

March 1, 2014

Essay on Apology

Plato’s Apology
Apology is basically the Plato’s version of speech given by Socrates in 399 BC to defend himself against the charges leveled against him. The content of the dialogue has several parts. The introductory part comes first where Socrate’s manner of speaking is portrayed. Then is the list of those accusations which were made with reference to his routine life. Socrates gives explanation for almost each of the allegation in an attempt to defend himself. Afterwards he tries to defend himself and mitigate penalty imposed on him. In the last portion of the dialogue, he makes an attempt to make judges realize that they would not be able to satisfy their conscience after pronouncing sentence as penalty for his crimes. (Allen, 245)      
In the beginning of the dialogue, Socrates apologizes the audience for the informal style he had planned to defend himself. The accusers warn the judges to stay guarded heavily as Socrates may deceive them while attempting to prove his innocence. Socrates insists that he is not articulate and accusers must be ashamed of what they think about him. Furthermore, he tells that the only ability he has is the truthfulness. He asks the judges to ignore his eloquence and consider the cause for which he is pleading.
Socrates uses plain language in his dialogue and explains the audience that he has no experience of law courts. He will talk to the court in general conversational manner with directness and honesty. He refers his style to the Delphi who claimed to be the wisest among all men. Delphi was ignorant of worldly affairs and he considered it his duty to expose the false faces of so called wise men. Such activities made him a controversial personality; partially famous among young people and partly notorious among those who were his victims (Brickhouse, Thomas & Nicholas, 89).
Meletus, who brought Socrates in front of jury, was the second subject of Socrates. This portion of the dialogue displays cross- examination and contains humiliation of Meletus. In this section Socrates did not attempt to reveal truth rather he has embarrassed Meletus. 
In a passage, Socrates calls Athenian state, a lazy horse to which he stinging like a pest. Socrates claimed than his presence and influence has kept the state alive which otherwise would have slept.
By a narrow margin, he was found guilty and was asked to pay penalty. On this, Socrates made fun of the judgment and said that he deserved a great meal for the services he had rendered to the state. Hype was built when Socrates rejected the orders of prison and exile and suggested fine. The jury rejected his suggestion and sentenced him to death.
Surprisingly, Socrates accepted the verdict with an opinion that one must not fear about what would happen after death. Only gods know this secret. In the   end, Socrates warned the jury that his death will be a greater damage to them as they would have no one to object their opinions and judgments ever.

The Opinions of Scholars on the Dialogue
There are several opinions on “The Apology” by Plato. The critics, writers, philosophers and non-philosophers have critically analyzed his work. Some speak about the Plato’s style of explaining the incident while others argue over the Socrates being a defender of his own case.
Johann J. Brucker, in 1741, first criticized the “The Apology”. He said that Plato was not a trust worthy source to study Socrates. After him, many evidences have been considered to prove that “The Apology” is more of a philosophical effort than a historical piece. In way of writing it, Plato did not seek historical accuracy instead he tried to reject the opinion of those whom he contempt (Allen, 1980). He tried to outdo the orators who had conflicted point of view.
Many scholars have opinion that Plato has failed to expose few most compelling evidence of the guilt Socrates had. De Strycker and Slings make more genuine opinion. They argue that the audience of Plato would not have expected his words on the trail phase rather he would have wrote about the actual situation.  The writer has failed to portray the actual reason of Socrates behavior at his trail.
The dialogue is inaccurate and unclear. In the words of the authors themselves, '... there is, on the one hand, no single sentence in the Platonic Apology that Socrates could not have actually pronounced, and on the other, that the published work contains no passage so specifically un-Platonic that it cannot be Plato's work' (78).
Contrary to the opinions of the scholars narrated above, many philosophers say that Plato’s explanation must be accurate as he wrote “The Apology” at time when his audience included those who had firsthand knowledge about the incident. This reduces the chances of Plato’s dialogue being emotionally biased. There was no room for Plato to show his sympathies in his script for Socrates (Backman, 79).
All the critics have consensus on two points Plato has raised in his work; first is the fact that Socrates was least apologetic during his trail. His tone was furious and full of attitude. Secondly, he could have accepted the orders to save himself rather than choosing death over compromise.  
My Opinions on the Dialogue
In my point of view, Plato’s Apology is a master piece which has added value to the literature and philosophy. He was not only a good writer but a genuine philosopher too. The Apology belongs to that category of work which has successfully lessened the gap between literature and philosophy. The dialogue reveals the traits of ideals philosopher.  
Apart from the fact that his teacher was accused of de-tracking the youth and not believing in gods, he was a man of fairness and openness. The speech of Socrates as told by Plato depicts the image of a true philosopher. Socrates did not compromise on his rules, composure and faith despite the fact that his life was at stake (Stone, 188). The speech is an inspiration for the philosophical thinkers. It interprets value and dignity a philosopher has. High ethical concerns dominated the life of Socrates.
Presenting the Ancient Greek knowledge of philosophy, “The Apology” serves as a milestone for ancient history which determines the theory of western politics, responsiveness and dual principles. Brought out of darkness of ignorance, the Socrates values are worthy enough to be known and learnt (Backman, 97).
The character of Delphic shows another aspect of the ancient society and its resemblance with the current scenario. The Socrates wisdom touches the peaks of humbleness in front of ignorance of Delphic. He did not impose his wisdom on those who were not worthy enough to carry it rather he preferred to die with his wit.
The script contains the true picture of history. The dialogues put light on the mindset of the people of that time. The modern ethics can be designed on the basis provided by this conversation. Those who know Greek have additional benefit. They can read the script in the original form without change of words. They can taste the relish of originality which is somehow spoiled due to translation and analysis. (Kraut, 243)
 The religious ideas of Socrates provide a plot for think-tanks. The conduct of Socrates on ethical and political issues explains newness of ideas and response of ignorant societies on such issues.
The last part of the dialogue becomes very intriguing with the great philosopher Socrates trying to persuade the audience that his death would not be a loss only for him but a greater loss for the humanity. He tried to convince them that people like him take ages and unthankful societies loose them as they were doing.
The script contains reality based reactions, philosophical elements, image of the great philosopher and loos societies bear due to their ignorance. In short, “The Apology” by Plato is a valuable effort made by Plato. Like all his scripts, “The Apology” contains uniqueness with respect to that time and era of literature. He has wonderfully presented the picture of a true philosopher who prefers to die with his wit rather than bowing in front of ignorant society. 

January 26, 2014

Essay on Performance


The word "performance" has two meanings. In the first, we put in the report that was produced (outputs) and consumption factors (inputs) required to achieve production. The units' work are either physical (tonnes, etc..) Or in monetary economics, we talk about performance, productivity, profitability or efficiency In psychology we speak.. "Instrumentality" means the achieve a goal. Secondly, the word "performance" refers to a comparison between what the company intends to do and what it has accomplished. Here we take into account the degree of achievement of the objective, that is to say, the efficiency. In psychology, the term "expectation" (hope to achieve a goal) is used.
In management, the problem of key performance the concept of "Social Audit" is more delicate. Indeed, if we admit that the activities of the company do not appreciate is only in the light of a single appearance but by examining a sequential and iterative process, we understand that the diagnostic performance can introduce bias and of questionable evaluation criteria. In psychology, we speak of "valence" of subjective value, subject to the desirability. As highlighted Louart P and C Beaucourt (2004), the measurement methods may quickly turn to the political act under the guise of management criteria. 
As a result, the performance of the act requires work, given the theories of motivation, a redefinition and in context. Performance assumes a priori competition, adaptation to the environment, economy, efficiency, scalable skills (acquired and required), etc.. In this regard, the instrumentation (dashboards), always questionable, suspicious, dependent on established conventions (see accounting standards) is to ensure the validity of the information collected. Similarly, the organizational process to achieve the desired results lends itself to images (metaphors) mechanistic efficiency, organic, sports, etc..
In total, separate lights do they come from the theoretical perspectives used? We believe including the agency theory and the resource that profile the major themes of HRM differently. We feel, we also need to revisit the context of recent developments in research in management sciences (Hatchuel and Laufer, 2000).
Management, like all scientific disciplines, based on practices but also on prevailing theories, that is to say on mainstream analysis providing plausible representations of the complexity of business operations and by declination, the ins and outs of performance.
Therefore, it should reverse the normal course of reasoning. The logically should lead to consider that from a performance capacity (efficiency), the company and the HR function seek to engage the action producing the expected effect (efficacy). This requires reasoning (effectiveness) resulting in a real action, in its reality and its results.
To do this, we will analyze the social performance looking, at first, transfer jobs, and in a second time, their effectiveness.

1. The transfer of jobs

1.1. Skills valued by resource theory

On the one hand, the world economy has moved from a uniform mass product economy to a variety of products. This variety, corresponding to the expectations of consumers, required flexibility of production units (see the theory of requisite variety: Marmuse, 1997). The evolution of technology has followed the same path: robotic, digital information technology, controls, etc.. Whatever the distance, e-mail allows instant contact with the customer, supplier, banker.
We observe a broad mechanization. This is the case of the computerization of administrative tasks for global software: SAP, browsers of HR tools, tools for planning, relationship management employees (Employee Relationship Management ERM), net of people- (global solution strategic human resource management), HR information systems, continuous and E-HRM (Intranet, internal job kiosk and Internet). The computerization of function abandonment of certain tasks and the development of new roles (Castagnos, Le Berre, 2003).
The dependence of the labor to build the accounting result was discussed by both researchers and practitioners alike. The answer came from the theory of resources and skills. This managerial design focuses the image of the company with other business partners (stakeholders)
The tools are put in perspective. Indicators, as in other functions, can be classified according to whether they provide information
- Means (metering factors or characteristics)
- On the environment (external measurement information) or
- The outcome (measure provided).
Dashboards that combine most useful indicators are presented in the major services of the company: purchasing, inventory methods, production, etc..
For example, in production or on the whole process, it is to find areas for improvement, especially on "best practices." There are many examples: ISO 9000, Six Sigma (statistical reduction process variability), Lean (just enough), 5S (better organization of the workstation), Kaizen, Kanban, visual management, one-piece flow. All (quality, time costs) tends to divide the cycle time of production, reduce scrap and eliminate defects.
In this functional presentation (Fayol) often adds a presentation space horizon (institutions, agencies, production units, etc..) And time (short term and long term). Software packages such as ERP (enterprise resource planing) integrates all of these data by classifying synthetic predefined indicators.
However, note that the company has its own register means (social peace, environment, internal consistency, loyalty, teamwork, presenteeism, etc..) To obtain a good correlation ability / performance, is ie to increase its expected profit maximization. Like a loan that generates financial costs, the mobilization of these resources has a cost but enhances the results of the company.
Strengthening the social cohesion necessary for all life in society can it combined in a positive circularity, with no less necessary economic efficiency. Economic efficiency is measured in terms of the depth audit by the accounting. The actions of men do they contribute to the economic results and vice versa? This he goes through a clear business strategy?
We can see that the logic of costs is pregnant. It is a battle of indicators. The cost approach is a mechanical productivity.
In general, social law has developed to meet two objectives: to entrust the management of a company workforce and protect the employee. Since World War II, the state sponsor of authoritarian planning for the public and private sector incentives for service has established itself as an active participant in economic life. The employment contract defined as a commitment indenture of a person to work for and under the subordination of another person for a wage controls the competence, performance and potential of the employee by the employer only.
The classification of contracts in force in the world of work described in the diagram below describes the magnitude but also the variability of situations:
Based on the theory of resources and expertise, the call to solve complex problems, under the heading of personal development (company itself, Aubrey, 2001, or employability Gazier, 2003) alters the employment relationship and psychological involvement. We ask people to take their career with a lot of energy, focus their perspectives on issues before any individual, the plunge of the business (by encouraging Plans Redundancy underway since 2002 in the major industrial groups, for example) to increase their initiative and responsiveness (project management and innovation) capabilities.
If the authority of the leader is increasingly replaced by customer and market forms of control induce paradoxical situations:
- By providing autonomy ambiguous since subject to specific objectives in so results requirements
- While seeking to empower as well as formal constraints are increasing through certifications, standards and standardizations imposed
- Until a very strong staff discontinuously because of the lack of job involvement, the succession of missions, memberships varying working groups and project.

Thus, the adaptive capacity proactivity and autonomy of action to meet the needs of modern organizations. Companies, like all employees, are forced to ongoing efforts to adjust and adapt to the market. Structures become more complex and opaque. Although permanent contracts remain the majority, their contents soften. They include a commitment to broad or evolving missions and finalize adjustment clauses (contracts for construction or goals, exclusive services, non-competition clause of geographical mobility, etc..). In some productive sectors, this leads to complex relational configurations where relationships are based on joint ownership of the means of production and control objectives and results.

In this separation of economic and social, the negative effects of increasingly reported (stress, motivation, commodification of labor, prevailing insecurity, etc.). Reposition the leading questions all the meaning to be given to current developments.
However, for the individual, insecurity and uncertainty are either incurred or assumed. Thus, "the solo work" within a network, from one side imposed by companies is, on the other hand, sought for the sake of independence. Therefore, the demand for social protection moves to the "flexicurity", term used to describe the relationships Scandinavian jobs.
The power steering is a resource and a constraint. Enchassé, "embeded" according to Granovetter, it is invisible, integrated so self evident. The "indifference" region (Barnard) or the "acceptance" (Simon, in Rojot p 233) area allow the subordinate to find normal injunctions "to do". But if the perception of resources and constraints change, these areas will move to alter the boundaries of employment. Contagion and conventional and implicit imitation are therefore displaced.

1.2. Intellectual territoriality jobs

New spaces and territories to conquer (the new "terra incognita") are also required on the intellectual content of the new jobs "tertiairisée" society. It is therefore to imagine a new way of thinking in business activity, that is to say, a new effectiveness.

For example, the scope and the territoriality of jobs need to be rethought. Thus, in the early years of the thirteenth century, the West was dependent on the unifying principles of European spirituality supported by the Church of Rome. The aristocrat Andreas Lobera, eager to answer the call of the fourth crusade to Jerusalem, however, was not inclined to face the rigors of travel and the abomination of the heathen. So he walked, around his property four times a day for a year to travel the equivalent of the distance between the castle of the holy city. This concept of travel is reported in its Crônicas del santo peregrinaje. Nearly six hundred years later, the soldier Xavier de Maistre, depicts a static trip made in his room alone. The travelogue is mainly that of a fertile and fulfilling human enterprise. To know who we are, it is necessary not to stand still?

Employment in our society "tertiairisée" is immaterial and intellectualized kind. It mainly depends on new territory: that of knowledge and the knowledge that everyone, individually and collectively implements.
The primitive accumulation of knowledge is assumed in its almost entirely by the company as a whole. Educators, the education and training system, public research centers, provide the most important part of this accumulation by transmitting and making available a decisive part of knowledge that is the common culture. The people, for their part, have to own the culture and use of knowledge so that these are in themselves increased. This individual asset is also a collective asset. It is both a social wealth produced by society and individuals. It is real when the person appropriates the social knowledge and implements.

Companies have and almost free of knowledge capital they merely supplement and adapt to their specific needs. This capital increase throughout life.

However, there is some empowerment skills in relation to the work consumed by businesses. The commitment of the employee to a particular firm weakens, whatever efforts it makes. The company itself is contingent when the employee acquires an autonomy of action and ability to thrive outside the organization. Under these conditions, the management staff must meet conflicting requirements. The company wants to capture the creativity of staff, channel it into action and predetermined goals and get their submission. They must also create spaces and territories to self development and inventiveness.

French unions designed at the time of industrial activities seem to have difficulties to integrate these new dimensions jobs. The British unions are worried long, those who participate as direct actors in the implementation of vocational training programs.

2. Rethinking social effectiveness in business

2.1. The multiplication of the proposed indicators

Under these conditions, the management staff must meet conflicting requirements. The company wants to capture the creativity of staff, channel it into action and predetermined goals and get their submission. They must also create spaces and territories to self development, creativity. Thus, many research proposed to identify relevant indicators to measure performance.

a - The performance measurement via the social report or dashboard is criticized when it comes to assessing the relevance of certain HRM practices (Lacoursière, Fabi, St-Pierre, 2004). Financial and accounting dimensions, couples products, markets, political and economic data (corporate citizen, globalization, etc..) Are superimposed to wage aspects related to employment.
The performance prediction is possible only by analyzing the objective characteristics of employees. We therefore sought to determine the predictors of efficiency, that is to say, for the components of fitness. These characteristics of the individual variables are well known (Alis Poilpot-Rocaboy 2000; Commeiras, Naro, 2000). They invite the employee to increase or reduce work efficiency.

b - The referees can also take the more traditional forms. This is the case with M Kalika (1988), which has four roots in organizational efficiency:
• compliance with the formal structure
• relationships between the components of the organization,
• the quality of the information flow,
• the flexibility of the structure.
To account for performance, P Gilbert and M Carpenter (2004) combine many factors that explain the direction sought by the assessments HR (modes of governance, strategy and application of general management, size and structure of the company). Indeed, a performance measurement result by reference to resources (financial, time budget, etc.). Available to the employee.

c - Regarding voltages roles of employees, three orientations are theoretically possible (Grima, 2004).
- Performance amounted to a moderate level of tension,
- The performance is low when uncertainty about the best attitude is strong (cognitive and motivational perception)
- The performance did not correlate with the role strain because it is a complex built. The lack of relationship is also possible due to the complexity of the multi-dimensional performance.

d - The strengthening of confidence or other, motor involvement also affects the efficiency of the employee. The employee feels reassured when he gets good results. Its performance is determined by its involvement in the organization, in the decisions of his superiors. Membership of the employee participates naturally the amount of compensation that is granted. Everything fits. The amount allocated is of operability due to the motivation it provides (Le Berre, Castagnos, 2003). However, the company is trying to identify the direct and objective conditions of wage efficiency without seeking prima facie involvement.

e - The optimum is the corollary notion of efficiency: it is a variety of options and specific measure indicators. Recall that the ratios provide information that is unclear and difficult to read.
The HRM activities (Arcand, Bayad, Fabi, 2002) may be significantly associated with performance indicators relate to communication, organization of work, performance evaluation and compensation. Here, the authors also rely on evidence already established performance: motivation, satisfaction, absenteeism, social climate, innovation, quality, productivity and profitability. In short, it is fuzzy and low operational situation.

f - The work of J Allouche, M Charpentier C Guillot (2003) are also based on a long list of indicators of firm performance: market price, cost of capital, rate of profit, sales growth, satisfaction customer, labor productivity, quality, turnover, etc..
Overall, the performance depends on:
• Stress and tension existing at work, without ambiguity and role conflict are connected
• a cognitive and motivational perspective,
• complex social constructs involving a multidimensional approach.

When it comes to resolving a crisis and practice choices under constraints, decisions are often made to the detriment of HR. In this sense the plural is perverse performance and sometimes leads to disenchantment. The explanation, management companies is provided by the development perspective of efficiency. There is a gap between the concrete recognition system employees (skills assessment, evaluation) and the performance objective established by reference to a single criterion too often disconnected from social considerations.
In this context, the employer's policy that no longer controls the reality of skills therefore tends to move from the direct rule of the work activity to the domination of the upstream and downstream work. It extends the time for non-work, opportunities to develop and organize time off work. The whole life is subject to the constraints of the new work. Systems funded pension savings confiscated for the benefit of financial institutions managing the lifetime of work, are an example. Working time, whatever reduced weighs more heavily on the life and times at regular hours and continuous work.
Therefore, targets and grids performance indicators become subtle. Assessment, multiple multivariate models become complex in the design of the meta-organization defined by the theory of translation (Akrich, Callon and Latour, 1988).
The configurational approach that involves the idea of ​​a holistic process and incremental decision is, too, a comprehensive and complete reasoning in HRM. However, its implementation does not guarantee an increase in firm performance, but to have an external and internal alignment modes of management of the company (Allani-Soltan, Bayad, Arcand, 2004).

2.2. A new contractual relationship (contract theory)

Building on the design of the entrepreneur as Schumpeter (1935) was presented to us, it is clear that understanding the phenomenon linked to human activity that generates added value, changes our perception of the border company. Indeed, for him, "the entrepreneur is an economic agent whose function is to perform new combinations (innovations) and is the active element of the performance." Schumpeter texts describing the contractor appear an astonishing modernity. The contractor is also "used depending on a company," says the concept of intrapreneurship. Citing the example of specialists, it dissociates intrapreneurship in the organization itself and reflects the notion of self-employment.
Entrepreneurship, according to Schumpeter (2004, repr.) Is defined as the ability to go forward alone in considering that safety and resistance are not real arguments against the decision and the action. These risk appetite.
In a second discovery, the author states the obvious permanent restructuring of "production elements" where innovation creates demand and fuel growth. So entrepreneurs are "people who take action to provide new forms of industrial and commercial operations." As a result, they have no sustainable and closed relationship with a precise operation including isolated. Similarly, ownership of assets required to operate is not a necessary sign of the action taken. We see, "worn" or not by a separate structure for shaping their wage income, an entrepreneur can take action in one or more structures to perform new combinations of production, whether or not stabilized ( employment or undated), whether or not the owner of the means. By cons, it can not act alone and isolated as involved in the implementation of new combinations of value creation. Its qualities are summarized as follows: it is
- Able to recognize opportunities inaccessible to the majority of their contemporaries and to make good decisions (Steve Jobs / Apple, Gates / Microsoft Bill, Serge Kampf / Cap Gemini). This concept is developed by B.Quinodon (2003) and A.Fayolle (2004);
- Able to innovate and to identify opportunities in a given environment, new combinations of factors of production (Schumpeter), innovation and creativity (Drucker, 1984; Stevenson, 1990; Danjou, 2004);
- Able to realize the choices and the Contractor is a coordinator of resources (Stevenson, Jarillo, Gumpert, 1985; Bygrave, Hofer, 1991);

In this perspective, the manager is limited to defining effective and related human resource indicators. It is often the salary and its various forms.

The propensity for opportunistic behavior latent in parties, unfolds because:
• conflicts of interest between individuals obliged to cooperate but tendentiously deploy strategies to serve their own satisfaction
• the ambient heterodoxy about the choice of institutional regulators efficient behavior.
In fact, the functioning of the economy is not based on proven principles. The market economy is supposed to regulate human activities in the light of the principles of coherence that seem to have been forgotten. For example, the classic designs of the economy have extolled the benefits of free trade. But the followers of international trade (see Ricardo) staring in the institutional framework rules. In fact:
• they applied mobility products and not resources (capital, people, technology). The latter were mainly circulated within all politically constituted (eg the European Union)
• they advocated the opening between homogeneous groups, that is to say between competing economies and not complementary,
• they recommended the creation of an international currency and a fixed exchange rate system.
In this context of regular auction to lower the value of work (Castagnos, Le Berre, 2003), who still dares predict a future reconciliation of economic and social performance of companies if you do not return to the description of expectations and interests, so the payment of social partner?

The Allouche, Charpentier and Guillot (2003) study also means wages as a good action variable. The remunerations and have no influence on the performance, except in the case of employee ownership. This view is confirmed, with some precautions, Raad (2004).
In addition, the firm equates the aforementioned ways, the interest of the employee liaison / employee satisfaction. Thus, a profit sharing plan (SVR) is usually installed as a prerequisite that the company is financially sound. Better if the installation of the RPB causes, moreover, an increase in performance! Nevertheless, in this design, motivation is seen as a means of action under an instrumental logic.
Type devices sharing personal profit, systems boxes wages, flexible work schedules, illustrate the mediating practices whose purpose is to smooth or minimize conflicting interests.
The difficulty of combining economic and social performance lies elsewhere. When it comes to solving a crisis, practice choices under constraints, decisions are often made to the detriment of HR. The company is it faulty? Nothing is less certain.
It is often found that the company usually decides its wage policy under the single objective correlation ability - performance and ignores the second is subjective (interest of the employee - employee satisfaction). Certainly, as a dichotomous perception may seem Manichean or representative of a divergence of interests irreparable. However, the synthesis is possible, including the concept of negotiated compensation (JC Castagnos, M Le Berre, 2000 and 2001).


The sharp distinction that labor law between the control result of the work and control the work that is supposed to draw the line between the commercial contract and employment contract becomes tenuous. The contract of employment is within the organization, the commercial contract is outside. Inside, the control and subordination are the essence of the relationship. Freedom to negotiate implies some externality. This is changing in this passionate relationship and if that should be the effectiveness of the new employment relationship.
The refusal of the private appropriation of knowledge and of certain cultural property, the challenge of market exchange knowledge considered public good would result in a gift economy (see certain practices carried out on the web) probably unrealistic and not conducive to value creation.
Indeed, when knowledge (knowledge) is the primary productive force, everything related to the production, orientation, division of knowledge becomes an issue of power for society. The issue of private or public property of the paid or free use of the means of access to knowledge becomes a central issue. So where is the advantage, distinctive and motivating for each employee?

If the company is an "artifact" or representation of collective action, it is up to us whether this new "holism" to supplant modern methodological individualism or the advantage of a constructivist approach to employment relations . In our opinion, like the three stories of Fernand Braudel (continental, rhythmic and events), the management shall certify segmentation, recognition of employee performance and expected results for each partner.

December 28, 2013

Essay on Job Satisfaction and Performance

Job Satisfaction and Performance

The level of job satisfaction is important. The design of individual jobs, the structuring of positions and organizations, and the choice of technologies have major implications for job satisfaction. It hardly seems wise to make choices likely to invoke strong negative feelings. Creating an organizational setting more in tune with the expectations and requirements of both workers and managers is well within our reach.
But what are the economic returns from job satisfaction? Can an organization that operates on a razor-thin margin of profit afford to design a more human organization? How does job satisfaction affect job performance?
The discussion point out the fallacy of the “pet milk theory” that happy workers are productive workers. Does this mean that increasing job satisfaction will have no effect on performance or on lowering the costs of production? We can draw a clear distinction between the “happiness days” of human relations and the concept of job satisfaction. Employers had tried to make their workers happy by furnishing them with items that were not related directly to the jobs they performed-that did not directly affect the nature of the job. Remember that the concept of job satisfaction is restricted to the feelings, positive and negative, that one has toward the job; the concepts of general happiness and job satisfaction are independent of each other.
In one Maytag plant, the assembly of a water pump was gradually changed from an assembly-line procedure to one-person work station; the complete pump was assembled at each work station. Job satisfaction went up quite a bit, and other results were also observed. The time that it took to assemble each pump dropped from 1.77 minutes per pump to 1.49 minutes; the company reported savings of $2,000 per year. (Kilbridge)
In another situation, each member of work groups of carpenters and brick-layers was allowed to nominate, in order of preference, three co-workers as a work partner. Twenty-two of these received as partners the co-workers nominated as first choice; twenty-eight more received their second choice; sixteen were assigned their third choice. The result of this change in construction work practices was that labor costs and materials costs were greatly reduced.  There was also a significant drop in turnover, suggesting greater job satisfaction. (Reymond H. Van Zelst, 1952)
Which Causes Which?
It makes intuitive sense that a person who enjoys the work works harder at it than the person who does not. Similarly, one interested and involved in should have a stronger commitment to doing a better job.
The argument could also be made that doing the job well causes one to be satisfied with that job. The tendency to continue doing what one does well and to find satisfaction in such competence may offer some of the rationale for the performance-leads-to-satisfaction argument. Inability to perform work duties well should be expected to cause frustration and thus lead to dissatisfaction.
If performance and satisfaction are related, which causes the other? Does the ability to perform the duties of a job well cause satisfaction? Or does satisfaction with the various components of the job induce higher level of job performance?
As yet these questions are unsettled. We do know that they are related in some way, however. Even if we were to find that job satisfaction did not lead to increased productivity. There is the simple concern for workers as people, for instance, as well as the belief that others should not be harmed, degraded, or deprived of their inherent dignity. These considerations might encourage one to eliminate the unnecessarily dissatisfying and to increase the satisfying facets of the job.
Job Satisfaction and Job Characteristics
When first considered, a job seems to be a straightforward concept. One’s job is what is done, typically on a continuing basis, in exchange for some reward or compensation. Yet a nurse’s or an accountant’s job is more than the application of nursing or accounting skills. The idea of the reward or compensation is more complex than it might first seem, too; a volunteer hospital worker or youth sports coach does not work for what we normally view as compensation, for no money is involved.
In short, the job one holds consists of quite a few components, among which jobholders easily differentiate. When asked how they liked their jobs, most people answer that some part of the job are good (perhaps the family co-workers or a supportive boss) and some not so good (such as a noisy workplace, insufficient office supplies, or poor-quality tools). All things considered, people can usually identify their overall assessment of the many components that make up their jobs.
If any job “is not an entity, but a complex interrelationship of tasks, roles, responsibilities, interactions, incentives, and rewards,“(Locke, p 1301) then none may be treated effectively by ignoring the array of attributes associated with the job. Instead, a format for identifying and analyzing these attributes becomes useful.
An analytical approach gains further benefit when we remember that each job has its own technology and structure; so the elements of the job are subjected to forces and concentrates outside the boundaries of the formal job description. Job satisfaction and morale are influenced by the organization’s structural characteristics by the physical characteristics of the job. Organizational shape and size, degree of job specialization, and monotony and repetitiveness are each important.
Which of the many aspects of a job in the most important in induce satisfaction or dissatisfaction? If a new college graduate were choosing a first job, what should she or he look for as indicators of a potentially satisfying position? Is it possible to “balance off” rather dissatisfying job characteristics with more important elements that might make a job satisfying overall? As a future manager, what would you consider in evaluating the job satisfactions and morale or your subordinates? What would you change in their jobs to make them more satisfying?
These questions are complex but important, and they can not be ignored. They must be considered because they directly influence organizational behaviors. Frustration, discontent, conflict, and alienation are inevitable in dissatisfying jobs; these affect the actions and attitudes of individuals. Satisfaction and performance are related, too, and dissatisfaction is associated with personal turnover. Job satisfaction has economic implications.
Because job satisfaction and dissatisfaction have important consequences, designing or changing jobs to enhance satisfaction seems worthwhile. Such changes require information about what to change. The investigations of Frederick Herzberg into the relationships between job attributes and attributes, although, controversial, provide an excellent framework for analysis and action.
If jobholders are not satisfied with their jobs, are they dissatisfied? We might feel the answer to be obvious. But is it? One simple might be neutral or ambivalent toward the job, maybe by liking some aspects and disliking others, rather than being actively dissatisfied. Considering the opposite of job satisfaction to be job dissatisfaction assumes that we can major this complex phenomenon on a single continuum or scale.
Herzberg and his associates conducted a series of interviews with two hundred engineers and accountants. (Frederick Herzberg, B. Mausner, and B. Snyderman – New York: Wiley, 1959). Those interviewed were asked to describe the events that occurred during those periods of their leaves in which they were extremely happy and unhappy with their jobs. When the events and experiences were analyzed, those associated with job satisfaction were found to be different from the events associated with job dissatisfaction. In other words, job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction were found to be two separate concepts, each of which was caused by a different set of factors.
Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction could not be represented as to and points on a single scale of attribute toward the job. The single-scale approach would lead to the conclusion that if a worker were 70 percent satisfied with the job, he or she must be also 30 percent dissatisfied. If a bad relationship with the boss were associated with job dissatisfaction, the normal assumption would be that a good relationship with the boss was associated with job satisfaction; contrary to expectation, the good worker-boss relationship was found to contribute little if anything to job satisfaction.

What this means is that the worker who is not dissatisfied is not necessarily satisfied with the job; he or she maybe neutral. Similarly, the worker who is not satisfied is not necessarily dissatisfied with the job; he or she maybe neutral (neither satisfied nor dissatisfied). The concepts of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not, according to Herzberg, end points on the same linear scale. They are two different concepts, each caused by a different set of job-related factors.